By Mrinalini Ravi, Lakshmi Ravikanth and Sarbani Dasroy

Everyone has the right to a standard of living and well-being of herself/himself and his/her family, but for homeless persons, it is just a thought. A homeless person has always been marginalized and has been economically disadvantaged and is but unable to acquire a secure livelihood, education, health etc. Women became more vulnerable in this case. Globalization changed the face of the world but created economic disparities among people adding to the number of the homeless.

The report explains how the current treatment gap and the increasing numbers of homelessness show the government’s weak policy implementation and denial of legal rights.

Reports also talks about, mentally ill and homeless persons, how systematic exclusion by society and institutions throw them in extreme vulnerabilities and they have to suffer from the double burden of abject social, economic and political deprivation.

By Anirban Bhattacharya

In this report author talk about, the crisis in the recent decades in the tea gardens Northern Bengal in the submontane area referred to as the Duars that has witnessed closures, abysmally low/stagnant wage levels, deniel of basic facilities, hunger deaths and distress migration. Many of these gardens have either been deemed sick or have faced closures at the turn of the millennium that has pushed the workforce to the edge.

By Ravi Srivastava

According to NSSO, between 1983 and 2011–12, male employment in the construction industry increased 7.2 times, while female employment also increased 7.4 times. Also, chapter talks about religious and social background of the workers, female employment in construction work, employment diversification, pull and push factor in construction work etc.

Report points out that, even though construction sector is the third lowest paying industry, the wages offered are still higher than agriculture and household work, hence leading to the incorporation of poor rural workers who are unable eke out living in agriculture in this industry.

A section of the paper also talks about the specific problems faced by the female construction workers.

For decent work and improved labour standard in the construction industry are, harmonization of certain labour laws applicable to construction industry workers, a process of registration, enforcement of social security laws and labour laws, skill improvement, ending illegal wage deductions and the incorporations of gender-friendly policies in employment.

By Nandini Dey & Vivek Mishra

The report explores the vulnerability of home-based workers through a gendered lens identifying key characteristics of home based work which define it. Authors identify invisibility as a factor which contributes to the vulnerability of home based workers because the hidden nature of the work hides the workers from public view, including from government statistics on work.

The report also spends some time trying to explore the different relationships and contractual obligations along the supply chain trying to locate agency along the chain and understand the power dynamics.

By Jawed Alam Khan and Priyanka Samy*

The chapter highlights the issues related to the recent changes made in planning institutions and budgetary processes. The objective of the chapter is to examine the possible consequences of the recent changes on decentralized planning and social equity after the dismantling of the Planning Commission and merger of Plan and Non Plan expenditure. It also tries to review the idea behind the formation of the NITI Aayog and takes stock of the work done so far.

The chapter examines the following research questions:

  1. Why was Planning Commission constituted?
  2. What are the factors behind the recent changes in budgetary processes, planning institutions and the discourse on Planning Commission versus the NITI Aayog?
  3. How far has the NITI Aayog been able to take initiatives to work towards its stated objectives?
  4. What are the consequences of these changes on decentralized planning (State Planning Board, District Planning Committee)?
  5. What are the possible implications of these changes on implementing Plan Strategies such as Scheduled Castes Sub Plan (SCSP) and Tribal Sub Plan (TSP)?

Satish Deshpande and Apoorvanand

Higher education is different from other public goods that cater to basic needs, such as housing, clean water or primary education, as it cannot be a matte of right. It is also a public good to which access is highly regulated.

Higher education in large and poor country marked by sharp inequalities is the only form of capital available for redistribution. In todays globalized, neoliberal world, with jobless growth, high GDP is meaningless for the vast majority of people. The prospect for significant redistribution in the reverse direction, with the super-rich growing even richer at the cost richer at the cost of the poor and the middle classes.

Higher education holds out hope as the only resource that is in principle unlimited, up that can help drive social mobility.

The chapter colncludes by putting concrete suggestions for further research and enquiry, which are also needed to strengthen the social struggle for a more equitable higher education scenario.

By Dipa Sinha

The chapter situates itself in the experiences of demonetization to bring forth the vulnerabilities of the section of society that either have no access to financial institutions or their access is very limited.

A large segment of the population especially vulnerable communities are abandoned after making the bank account but have no resources physical and non-physical, to actually engage with the banking system.

The author states that the consequences of financial exclusion are multiple, beginning with the most immediate financial consequences which affect directly or indirectly the way in which individuals can raise, allocate and use their monetary resources. Then, there are also other social and economic exclusions as a result of not having access to financial services.

Chapter also focuses on the financial exclusion can have of various vulnerable sections of society and presents various vulnerable sections of society and presents various policy recommendations that propose change.

By Rajanya Bose

The paper broadly engages with alienation of tribes from revenue and forest land in post-colonial India. It argues for the need to ensure protection of tribes from sale, transfer of denial of land rights without their informed consent.

In the second edition the paper discusses the extent and processes of alienation in about nine districts in nine states between 2014-2016.

The paper establishes how tribal, alienation due to development induced displacement, due to settlement of non tribal in tribal areas, creation of national parks, exclusion from forest rights etc.

By Anup Surendranath and Rishika Sahgal

The authors explain why the right to fair trial in death penalty cases is a public good. Also, they argue that given that the death sentence is aa unique and the harshest punishment within the Indian criminal justice system, and unparalleled in the suffering in inflicts on prisoners.

Once sentenced to death, prisoners, experience inhman conditions within prisons, such as solitary confinement, the denial of educational and work opportunities, extremely cramped spaces, cells wih very little light and air, unacceptable standards of hygiene, abysmal quality of food in flagrant violation of prison manuals, poor standards of medical services and almost non-existent mental health services, all of which aggravates their agony.
Children of prisoners suffer a great deal in terms of diminished educational opportunities, ridicule and stigma, being forced to change schools, and of children dropping out of school altogether.